The Big Bang Theory

What is the Big Bang Theory?
An unbelievably hot, exceptionally dense mass, only a few millimeters large - that was the composition of the entire universe before the Big Bang. But how could the enormous universe, which our Earth is a part of, have started from a minuscule mass? The Big Bang theory was born out of the observation that other galaxies are moving away from our own at great speed. The nearly incomprehensible state that the universe was in before the Big Bang is theorized to have existed for just a fraction of the first second of time.

Around 13.7 billion years ago, a massive, but silent, blast allowed all the universe's known matter and energy—even space and time themselves—to spring from some ancient and unknown type of energy. The theory states that, in the instant (a trillion-trillionth of a second) after the big bang, the universe expanded with incomprehensible speed from its pebble-size origin to astronomical scope. The expansion of the universe since then has continued, but moving at a much slower pace.

A Belgian priest named Georges Lemaître first suggested the big bang theory in the 1920s. His theory was that the universe began from a single atom. Edwin Hubble, an American scientist, was also one the major contributors to the theory. He made observations that galaxies are speeding away from us in all directions. Hubble's and Lemaître's discoveries, in addition to Penzias's discovery of cosmic microwave radiation, led to the evolutionary idea that the universe was all started from on big bang.
Why the Big Bang Theory?
Since the beginning of man, ancient peoples have spent their lives trying to find the origin of life. We all strive to find a purpose for our life, still today. Moreover, we want to know where we came from, not individually, but as a whole. When all other options failed in trying to describe the origin of the world, primitive man assumed that there must be an external force that governs the world and that created everything. God, the people felt, was the answer to the origin of the world. Soon an idea was developed known today as creation, which describes the story of Adam and Eve as the beginning of the universe. The Big Bang Theory is the modern, scientific approach to describing the origin of the world. With new discoveries in the field of particle physics, scientists have been able to further describe the phenomenon known as The Big Bang. Furthermore, laboratories throughout the world are attempting to  replicate the Big Bang to try to track down the spark of the universe. Most scientists believe that the Big Bang Theory provides the best explanation based on the evidence that we have discovered thus far. One of the most difficult and most recent areas of progress is understanding the moment of creation. Before understanding the beginning universe itself, it is necessary to take a look at the origins and evolution of the galaxies. Although many of the discoveries and theories supported by the Big Bang Theory cause controversy among common people and scientists alike, this theory is still one of the predominant explanations for the origins of the universe. In order to understand this theory, it is necessary to know about the cosmology behind it.  
What is a singularity?
What happened before our universe formed? More importantly, how did our universe form? According to the standard theory, our universe came into existence as singularity around 13.7 billion years ago. What is a singularity and where does it come from? Although we don't know for sure, singularities are zones of infinite density which defy our current understanding of physics because they exist at the core of black holes. A singularity is the moment before creation when space and time did not exist. Black holes are areas of exceptionally intense gravitational pressure. Our universe is thought to have begun as an infinitely small, hot, dense, something, perhaps a singularity. What we don't know, however, is where this singularity came from and why it appeared.
Cosmology is the study of the origin and evolution of the universe. How did cosmic structures arise? How did small, star-like lights form into immense galaxies? These transformations occurred many eons ago, making it just the more difficult to discover the origin of the galaxies. Although not all of the questions of cosmology can be answered, the big bang theory does provide us with a broad outline of the evolution of the universe. In trying to answer many questions about cosmology, new questions inevitably arise. Many of the points in the big bang theory are mere hypotheses that still haven't been proven. However, through various studies and research, scientists are still trying to find evidence that all of these points are true. Because of the uncertainty of many details of the theory, the study of cosmology is not only a study of the past, but also of the future to see how the universe will look then and to help us understand the origin of the universe.
Cosmological Principles:
From the earliest times, it has been a firm human belief that we play a central and increasingly important role in the universe. The geocentric model, saying that the Earth was the center of the universe and that all other objects orbit around it, was proposed during the Ancient Greek times, as early as third century BC. By the 16th century, the geocentric model of the universe was replaced with the heliocentric model, in which the Earth and planets revolve around a stationary Sun at the center of the solar system. However, that model was soon rejected as well. Finally, in the twentieth century, scientists realized that our sun is actually an ordinary star which is located near the edge of an ordinary galaxy, of which there are an estimate of 100 to 200 billion in the universe. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, is part of a loose grouping of galaxies on the outer edge of a great cluster of galaxies, known as the Virgo cluster. Therefore, to the dismay of the geocentric supporters, our precious Earth is actually a mere spec in the large scheme of the universe.
Geologist, Charlie Sosik, was generous enough to offer us a wide variety of interesting answers as to what exactly geology is and its take on the origin of the universe. He tells us how important it is to know about the composition of the earth in order to fully understand how it was created.

1) What is geology?

Geologists do a variety of jobs depending on their specialty area (much like engineers). Geology has a lot of specialty areas including Volcanology, Petrology, Mineralogy,  Paleontology, Planetary Geology, etc. Research geologists, which usually work at universities, will conduct studies to determine how the earth has changed over time under various geologic processes such as erosion, volcanoes, deposition of sediments, glaciers, etc. Petroleum geologists work for oil companies and try to determine where the best places are to drill for oil based on the type of rock and structure present which are conducive to trapping oil and the type of ancient environment conducive to the formation of oil. Mineral geologists do much the same thing working for mining companies in trying to locate and track deposits of coal or valuable minerals. Engineering geologists are involved in determining the structural properties of rocks and earth materials for construction purposes such as dams, tunnels, building foundations etc. My specialty is Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology which involves the occurrence, flow and behavior of groundwater and more specifically contamination of soil and groundwater. Our work involves studies to assess the potential for contamination of a property from past industrial or commercial uses and if contaminated to determine the type and extent of contamination and to develop methods to clean it up. Its really pretty interesting, has a lot of variety and is very challenging work. It also has a nice mix of office time and field work.

2) According to geology, how was the universe created?

Since geology is the study of the earth (or planets), I don’t think it has much to say about the origin of the universe. That is more the realm of thoretical physics, cosmetologists and astronomers. However geology does deal with the formation of planets, moons, asteroids, etc and applies the same techniques used to study the earth on the other bodies in our solar system. They look at thinks on earth such as river patterns and erosional features and apply what they know about how those things form to features they see on mars for example, to conclude that at one time Mars had surface water. The same goes for volcanoes on Io and ice features on Europa. 

3) How does geology help describe the origins of the Earth?

Theories on the origin of the earth are tied into the formation of the entire solar system. Geology contibutes to these theories by describing what the earth is made of, how old it is, what the interior is made of and how hot it is. Theories on the earths origin must be refined and and revised to explain the things which geology has discovered. Geologists have noteed similarilies between the composition of the earth and the composition of the moon and have noted  a large area in the Pacific basin which suggests that the moon was formed by a collision between a large planetoid and the early earth. The moon is also the same age as the earth. Therefore any thory on the origin of the earth must account for the geologic evidence.

4) When was the field of geology created and why?

I think that modern geology was created in the 1800’s and was primarily formed as an area of study due to mining. It was probably around before that but I think it was more of a hobby to explain and contemplate the origin of fossils and many natural geologic features and landforms such as caves, mountains, etc. 

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